Here is the text and process I am working through this week Mark 3:7–12. I welcome any thoughts, questions or insights that you might have.

WHAT?

Text Comparison – Mark 3:7–12

NET | Mk 3:7 Then Jesus went away with his disciples to the sea, and a great multitude from Galilee followed him. And from Judea,  8 Jerusalem, Idumea, beyond the Jordan River, and around Tyre and Sidon a great multitude came to him when they heard about the things he had done.  9 Because of the crowd, he told his disciples to have a small boat ready for him so the crowd would not press toward him.  10 For he had healed many, so that all who were afflicted with diseases pressed toward him in order to touch him.  11 And whenever the unclean spirits saw him, they fell down before him and cried out, “You are the Son of God.”  12 But he sternly ordered them not to make him known.

NASB95 | Mk 3:7 Jesus withdrew to the sea with His disciples; and a great multitude from Galilee followed; and also from Judea,  8 and from Jerusalem, and from Idumea, and beyond the Jordan, and the vicinity of Tyre and Sidon, a great number of people heard of all that He was doing and came to Him.  9 And He told His disciples that a boat should stand ready for Him because of the crowd, so that they would not crowd Him;  10 for He had healed many, with the result that all those who had afflictions pressed around Him in order to touch Him.  11 Whenever the unclean spirits saw Him, they would fall down before Him and shout, “You are the Son of God!”  12 And He earnestly warned them not to tell who He was.

NLT | Mk 3:7 Jesus went out to the lake with his disciples, and a large crowd followed him. They came from all over Galilee, Judea,  8 Jerusalem, Idumea, from east of the Jordan River, and even from as far north as Tyre and Sidon. The news about his miracles had spread far and wide, and vast numbers of people came to see him.  9 Jesus instructed his disciples to have a boat ready so the crowd would not crush him.  10 He had healed many people that day, so all the sick people eagerly pushed forward to touch him.  11 And whenever those possessed by evil spirits caught sight of him, the spirits would throw them to the ground in front of him shrieking, “You are the Son of God!”  12 But Jesus sternly commanded the spirits not to reveal who he was.

The Message | Mk 3:7 Jesus went off with his disciples to the sea to get away. But a huge crowd from Galilee trailed after them—  8 also from Judea, Jerusalem, Idumea, across the Jordan, and around Tyre and Sidon—swarms of people who had heard the reports and had come to see for themselves.  9 He told his disciples to get a boat ready so he wouldn’t be trampled by the crowd.  10 He had healed many people, and now everyone who had something wrong was pushing and shoving to get near and touch him.  11 Evil spirits, when they recognized him, fell down and cried out, “You are the Son of God!”  12 But Jesus would have none of it. He shut them up, forbidding them to identify him in public.

Genre:

  • What kind of writing are we studying ?

Mark 1:2–16:20: Gospel, Gospel Narrative

Mark 3:7–12: Gospel, Gospel Narrative, Miracle Story: Exorcism

Redemptive history:

  • Where is it in relation to the Graeme Goldsworthy list below? 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16
  • How does this passage support this period in redemptive history?  
    • 13. The New Creation for Us The province of Judea, the homeland of the Jews, came under Roman rule in 63 BC. During the reign of Caesar Augustus, Jesus was born at Bethlehem, probably about the year 4 BC. John, known as the Baptist, prepared the way for the ministry of Jesus. This ministry of preaching, teaching, and healing began with Jesus’ baptism and lasted about three years. Growing conflict with the Jews and their religious leaders led eventually to Jesus being sentenced to death by the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate. He was executed by the Romans just outside Jerusalem, but rose from death two days afterward and appealed to his followers on a number of occasions. After a period with them, Jesus was taken up to

Subject:

  • What is the passage about? Look at its context and surrounding text.          Mt 12:15–21 || Mk 3:7–12

The plot thickens. Notice how the three groups are immediately brought back into the picture (crowds, 3:7–12; disciples, vv. 13–19; opposition, vv. 20–30; even his family is bewildered, vv. 31–34). The disciples are now “appointed” as the Twelve (representing the remnant of Israel), and their role is stepped up considerably.In 4:1–34 Mark uses Jesus’ teaching in parables to introduce the mystery of the kingdom, which will be revealed to them (those on the inside). The opposition (those “on the outside”), in their failure to hear with their ears (4:9), fulfill Isaiah’s prophecy (Isa 6:9–10; cf. his scathing rebuke of people becoming like their idols that cannot hear [Isa 42:18, 20]), but as the story proceeds, the disciples fare little better. (Gordon Fee)

 

ESVSB Outline

         I.    Introduction (1:1–15)

         II.  Demonstration of Jesus’ Authority (1:16–8:26)

   A.  Jesus’ early Galilean ministry (1:16–3:12)

   B.  Jesus’ later Galilean ministry (3:13–6:6)

         1. Calling of the Twelve (3:13–35)

         2. Parables (4:1–34)

         3. Nature miracle, exorcism, and healing (4:35–5:43)

         4. Rejection at Nazareth (6:1–6)

Overview of Mark (G Fee)

Although Mark is the earliest of the four Gospels (see How to 1, pp. 135–39), because it is shorter and has much less teaching than the others, it has often tended to suffer neglect. At one level his story is straightforward. After a prologue, which introduces us to the good news about Jesus Christ (1:1–15), the story unfolds in four parts. In part 1 (1:16–3:6), Jesus goes public with the announcement of the kingdom. With rapid-fire action he calls disciples, drives out demons, heals the sick, and announces that all of this has to do with the coming of God’s rule; in the process he draws amazement from the crowds and opposition from the religious and political establishment, who early on plot his death.

Part 2 (3:7–8:21) develops the role of the three significant groups. Jesus’ miracles and teaching are sources of constant amazement to the crowds; the disciples receive private instruction (4:13, 34) and join in the proclamation (6:7–13), but are slow to understand (8:14–21; cf. 6:52); the opposition continues to mount (7:1–23; 8:11–13).

In part 3 (8:22–10:45), Jesus directs his attention primarily to the disciples. Three times he explains the nature of his kingship—and hence of discipleship (8:34–38)—as going the way of the cross (as Isaiah’s suffering servant; Mark 10:45), and three times the disciples completely miss it.

Part 4 (10:46–15:47) brings the story to its climax. The king enters Jerusalem and the crowds go wild with excitement, but in the end the opposition has its day. Jesus is put on trial, found guilty, and turned over to the Romans for execution on a cross—as “the king of the Jews” (15:2).

A brief epilogue (16:1–8) reminds Mark’s readers that “[Jesus] has risen!”

Topics:

  • What are the ideas in the passage?
    • Worship
    • Tyre
    • Prudence, Instances of
    • Demons
    • Jesus,
    • The Christ, History of
    • Galilee
    • Edom
    • Idumea
    • Faith, In Christ, Exemplified
    • Edomites, The
    • Jesus, The Christ, Received
    • Phenicia
    • Jesus, The Christ, Son of God
    • Jesus, The Christ, Worship of
    • Messianic Secret
    • Peraea
    • Papyri
    • Sidon
    • Sidonians, The

Key Words:

  • Identify the natural divisions (paragraphs and sentences) of the text.
  • Original word meanings
  • Connecting Words of the text/ (how do they aid in understanding the authors progression of thought)
  • [4436] πλῆθος plēthos 31x  Lk 1:10; 2:13; 5:6; a multitude, a crowd, throng, Mk 3:7, 8; Lk 6:17 [4128] See crowd; multitude; number.
  • [4449] πλοιάριον ploiarion 5x  Mk 3:9; Jn 6:22, 23, 24 [4142]
  • [3465] μάστιξ mastix 6x  Acts 22:24; Heb 11:36; met. a scourge of disease, Mk 3:10; 5:29, 34; Lk 7:21* [3148]
  • [4498] πολύς polys 416x  in magnitude or quantity, much, large, Mt 13:5; Jn 3:23; 15:8; pl. many, Mt 3:7; in time, long, Mt 25:19; Mk 6:35; Jn 5:6; οἱ πολλοί, the many, the mass, Rom 5:15; 12:5; 1 Cor. 10:33; τὸ πολύ, much, 2 Cor. 8:15; πολύ, as an adv., much, greatly, Mk 12:27; Lk 7:47; of time, ἐπὶ πολύ, a long time, Acts 28:6; μετʼ οὑ πολὺ, not long after, Acts 27:14; followed by a compar., much, 2 Cor. 8:22; πολλῷ, much, by much, Mt 6:30; Mk 10:48; τὰ πολλά, as an adv., most frequently, generally, Rom 15:22; πολλά, as an adv., much, greatly, vehemently, Mk 1:45; 3:12; of time, many times, frequently, often, Mt 9:14 [4118, 4119, 4183] See great; large; many.
  • [4700] προσπίπτω prospiptō 8x  or impinge upon or against a thing; to fall down to any one, Mk 3:11; 7:25; to rush violently upon, beat against, Mt 7:25 [4363]
  • [2555] θεωρέω theōreō 58x  with interest and attention, Mt 27:55; 28:1; to contemplate mentally, consider, Heb 7:4; in NT to see, perceive, Mk 3:11; to come to a knowledge of, Jn 6:40; from the Hebrew, to experience, undergo, Jn 8:51 [2334] See perceive; see; watch.
  • [4674] προσκαρτερέω proskartereō 10x  a thing; to be intently engaged in, attend constantly to, Acts 1:14; 2:42; Rom 13:6; to remain constantly in a place, Acts 2:46; to constantly attend upon, continue near to, be at hand, Mk 3:9; Acts 8:13; 10:7 [4342] See attend to; (be) devoted to.
  • [4012] ὅσος hosos 110x  Mk 7:36; Jn 6:11; Heb 1:4; 8:6; 10:25; ἐφʼ ὅσον χρόνον, for how long a time, while, as long as, Rom 7:1; so, ἐφʼ ὅσον, sc. χρόνον, Mt 9:15; ὅσον χρόνον, how long, Mk 2:19; neut. ὅσον repeated, ὅσον ὅσον, used to give intensity to other qualifying words, e.g., μικρόν, the very least, a very little while, Heb 10:37; ἐφʼ ὅσον, in as much as, Mt 25:40, 45; καθʼ ὅσον, by how much, so far as, Heb 3:3; or, in as much as, as, so, Heb 7:20; 9:27; pl. ὅσα, so far as, as much as, Rev 1:2; 18:7; how great, how much, how many, what, Mk 3:8; 5:19, 20; how many, as many as, all who, 2 Cor. 1:20; Phil 3:15; 1 Tim. 6:1; ὅσος ἄν, or ἐάν, whoever, whatsoever, Mt 7:12; 18:18 [3745]
  • PRESS New Testament

Verb: θλίβω (thlibō), GK 2567 (S 2346), 10x. thlibō literally denotes pressing, squeezing, or crushing. A multitude forces Jesus to get into a boat that was at hand so that they will not press him (Mk 3:9). Paul writes that he and his group are “persecuted” in every way (4:8) and “pressed in on every side” (7:5). See persecute.

[2567] θλίβω thlibō 10x  Mk 3:9; met. to distress, afflict, 2 Cor. 1:6; 4:8; pass. to be compressed, narrow, Mt 7:14 [2346] See persecute; press; trouble.

  • COME UPON New Testament

Verb: ἐπιπίπτω (epipiptō), GK 2158 (S 1968), 11x. epipiptō can mean “to come upon, fall upon, embrace.” In the NT epipiptō is used only in respect to persons. It indicates embracing in Lk 15:20 and Acts 20:37. This describes John’s reclining on Jesus at the Last Supper (Jn 13:25) and can have the sense of “to press upon” (as in Mk 3:10). It is a favorite word in Acts for the Holy Spirit descending on people (Acts 8:16; 10:44; 11:15). Metaphorically, epipiptō can refer to being “gripped” or “seized” by fear (Lk 1:12; Acts 19:17). See NIDNTT-A, 461–62.

[2158] ἐπιπίπτω epipiptō 11x  Lk 15:20; Jn 13:25; Acts 20:10, 37; to press, urge upon, Mk 3:10; to light upon, Rom 15:3; to come over, Acts 13:11; to come upon, fall upon mentally or spiritually, Lk 1:12; Acts 8:16; 10:10, 44; 11:15; 19:17 [1968] See come upon; embrace; fall upon.

  • OBVIOUS New Testament

Adjective: φανερός (phaneros), GK 5745 (S 5318), 18x. phaneros means “obvious, known, plain.” This adjective stresses what is obvious to human sight. Matthew and Mark use this term in connection with the messianic secret, for Jesus tells certain individuals not to “make plain” or tell others who he is (Mt 12:15; Mk 3:12). In spite of this, “Jesus’ name had become well known” (Mk 6:14).

  • [5626] υἱός hyios 377x  Mt 1:21, 25; 7:9; 13:55 freq.; a legitimate son, Heb 12:8; a son artificially constituted, Acts 7:21; Heb 11:24; a descendant, Mt 1:1, 20; Mk 12:35; in NT the young of an animal, Mt 21:5; a spiritual son in respect of conversion or discipleship, 1 Pet. 5:13; from the Hebrew, a disciple, perhaps, Mt 12:27; a son as implying connection in respect of membership, service, resemblance, manifestation, destiny, etc., Mt 8:12; 9:15; 13:38; 23:15; Mk 2:29; 3:17; Lk 5:34; 10:6; 16:8; 20:34, 36; Jn 17:12; Acts 2:25; 4:36; 13:10; Eph 2:2; 5:6; Col 3:6; 1 Thess. 5:5; 2 Thess. 2:3; υἱὸς θεοῦ, κ.τ.λ., son of God in respect of divinity, Mt 4:3, 6; 14:33; Rom 1:4; also, in respect of privilege and character, Mt 5:9, 45; Lk 6:35; Rom 8:14, 19; 9:26; Gal 3:26; ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, κ.τ.λ., a title of the Messiah, Mt 26:63; Mk 3:11; 14:61; Jn 1:34, 50; 20:31; υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου, a son of man, a man, Mk 3:28; Eph 3:5; Heb 2:6; ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, a title of the Messiah, Mt 8:20 freq.; as also, ὁ υἱὸς Δαβίδ, (Δαύιδ) Mt 12:23 [5207] See child; son.
  • ATTEND TO New Testament

Verb: προσκαρτερέω (proskartereō), GK 4674 (S 4342), 10x. proskartereo is “to attend to, devote oneself to” with regularity. Its verbal form is kartereō, which comes from the root kratos, “strength.” While both vbs. connote remaining strong or being steadfast, proskartereō emphasizes duration of activity. In a nonreligious sense, it shows constant, enduring action. It is used of servants who were permanent attendants to Cornelius (Acts 10:7). Simon Magus attends to Philip by following him in ministry (8:13), rulers are to attend to their governing duties (Rom 13:6), and the disciples keep a boat ready for Jesus to use as needed (Mk 3:9).

  • [2400] ἔχω echō 708x pluperfect., ἐσχήκειν, to hold, Rev 1:16; to seize, possess a person, Mk 16:8; to have, possess, Mt 7:29, et al. freq.; to have, have ready, be furnished with, Mt 5:23; Jn 5:36; 6:68; to have as a matter of crimination, Mt 5:23; Mk 11:25; to have at command, Mt 27:65; to have the power, be able, Mt 18:25; Lk 14:14; Acts 4:14; to have in marriage, Mt 14:4; to have, be affected by, subjected to, Mt 3:14; 12:10; Mk 3:10; Jn 12:48; 15:22, 24; 16:21, 22; Acts 23:29; 1 Tim. 5:12; Heb 7:28; 1 Jn. 1:8; 4:18;
  • PERSECUTE New Testament

Verb: θλίβω (thlibō), GK 2567 (S 2346), 10x. thlibō literally denotes pressing, squeezing, or crushing. A multitude forces Jesus to get into a boat that was at hand so that they will not press him (Mk 3:9). Jesus proclaims that the way that leads to life is “narrow” or squeezed in, and few are those who find it (Mt 7:14).

  • DEPART New Testament

Verb: ἀναχωρέω (anachōreō), GK 432 (S 402), 14x. anachōreō means “to depart, return.” It can refer to simply leaving one place for another place, such as Judas “departing” from the temple to go hang himself (Mt 27:5). It can also refer to withdrawing from a place as a way of seeking refuge. Joseph, Mary, and Jesus “take refuge” from Herod in Egypt (Mt 2:14). On several occasions Jesus withdraws alone (Mt 14:13; Jn 6:15) or along with others (Mt 12:15; 15:21; Mk 3:7). The Magi “return” to their country by a different route after being warned not to go back to Herod (Mt 2:12).

 

  • SHOUT New Testament

Verb: κράζω (krazō), GK 3189 (S 2896), 55x. krazō means “to shout, cry out.” Such shouting can be in hostility, anguish, joyful elation, or urgent authoritative testimony. (1) krazō naturally denotes hostility when on the lips of demons and unclean spirits (Mt 8:29; Mk 3:11; 5:5, 7; 9:26; Lk 9:39; Acts 16:17), the mob at Jesus’ “trial” (Mt 27:23; Mk 15:13, 14), the mob at the stoning of Stephen (Acts 7:57), the riotous mob in Ephesus (Acts 19:32), and the hostile mob in Jerusalem (21:28, 36). Perhaps a bit of holy hostility can be found in Acts 14:14, when Barnabas and Paul tear their garments and rush into the crowd, “crying out” for them to stop their pagan sacrifices.

  • [4472] ποιέω poieō 568x pluperf., πεποιήκειν, to make, form, construct, Mt 17:4; Mk 9:5; Jn 2:15; of God, to create, Mt 19:4; Acts 4:24; to make, prepare a feast, etc., Mt 22:2; Mk 6:21; met. to make, establish, ratify, a covenant, Heb 8:9; to make, assume, consider, regard, Mt 12:33; to make, effect, bring to pass, cause to take place, do, accomplish, Mt 7:22; 21:21; Mk 3:8; 6:5; 7:37;
  • REBUKE

Verb: ἐπιτιμάω (epitimaō), GK 2203 (S 2008), 29x. epitimaō generally means “to rebuke.” Peter, for example, rebukes Jesus after he outlined his coming passion (Mt 16:22). NT rebukes are uttered in a variety of contexts and with varying aims. Using rebukes, Jesus demonstrated his divinity and authority over the weather (8:26), demons (17:18), and illnesses (Lk 4:39). Rebukes can also take the form of a warning (Mt 12:16) or a stern command (Mk 3:12). Rebukes are used to stop people from doing something they are currently engaged in (Mt 19:13) and often to condemn those who are sinning (Lk 17:3). Rebuking is a major pastoral function (note Paul’s instruction in 2 Tim. 4:2, “correct, rebuke, and encourage”). God uses pastoral rebukes—along with preaching, correcting, and encouraging—to turn an erring brother back into the right path. See NIDNTT-A, 201.

  • UNCLEAN, UNCLEANNESS New Testament

Adjective: ἀκάθαρτος (akathartos), GK 176 (S 169), 32x. akathartos pertains to that which may not be brought into contact with what is holy (see holy). In this sense it is “impure, unclean, defiled” and at times “evil.” The root kathartos means “clean” or “pure,” but the a prefix denotes its negation, thus “impure, unclean.” In the LXX, akathartos often translates ṭāmēʾ (“unclean, defiled”) and its derivatives, denoting impurity in a ritual (ceremonial) sense. The NT conveys this sense of ritual impurity by pairing akathartos with koinos in Acts 10:14, 28 and 11:8. In Acts 10:14 and 11:8, Peter says he has been faithful not to eat food that is ritually “unclean”; yet in 10:28 he makes the profound theological statement that one may not characterize individuals as either “impure” or “unclean.” Paul, quoting from Isa 52:11, denounces idolatry saying: “ ‘Therefore come out from them and be separate,’ says the Lord. ‘Touch no unclean thing, and I will receive you’ ” (2 Cor. 6:17). Here the “unclean thing” amounts to association with those who worship idols, and this pushes the idea of “impurity” into the moral sphere (an idea already apparent in the prophets).

The moral sense of akathartos is common in the NT. Impurity is associated with fornication (Eph 5:5; Rev 17:4) and idolatry, as we have just noted. Impurity is also associated with demonic evil. Those afflicted by demons are often described as having an “unclean” or “evil” (akathartos) spirit (see, e.g., Mt 10:1; 12:43; Mk 1:23, 26; 3:11, 30; 5:2, 8, 13; 6:7; 7:25; 9:25).

  • Notes for  3:7

17 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

18 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

  • Notes for  3:8

19 map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.

20 tn “River” is not in the Greek text but is supplied for clarity. The region referred to here is sometimes known as Transjordan (i.e., “across the Jordan”).

21 map For location see Map1-A2; Map2-G2; Map4-A1; JP3-F3; JP4-F3.

22 sn These last two locations, Tyre and Sidon, represented an expansion outside of traditional Jewish territory. Jesus’ reputation continued to expand into new regions.

map For location see Map1-A1; JP3-F3; JP4-F3.

  • Notes for  3:9

23 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

  • Notes for  3:11

24 sn Unclean spirits refers to evil spirits.

  • Notes for  3:12

25 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

26 sn Jesus did not permit the demons to make him known because the time for such disclosure was not yet at hand, and such a revelation would have certainly been misunderstood by the people. In all likelihood, if the people had understood him early on to be the Son of God, or Messiah, they would have reduced his mission to one of political deliverance from Roman oppression (cf. John 6:15). Jesus wanted to avoid, as much as possible, any premature misunderstanding about who he was and what he was doing. However, at the end of his ministry, he did not deny such a title when the high priest asked him (14:61–62).

Cultural / historic Context of passage:

            Summary of Jesus’ Healing (3:7–12)

Many people came to him from Judea, Jerusalem, Idumea, and the regions across the Jordan and around Tyre and Sidon (3:8). The multitudes pressing on Jesus come from places that correspond to the land of biblical Israel. They swarm around the house he is in so that he is unable even to eat (3:20). This makes it necessary for him to prepare an escape route by boat (3:9).

Whenever the evil spirits saw him, they fell down before him and cried out, “You are the Son of God” (3:11). Only the demons know who Jesus really is, but they can never be agents of revelation. In the first-century setting, most would have considered it ominous for demons to shout out a name in recognition (see comments on 1:24). They would not assume that demons were paying Jesus homage but that they were attempting to control him by pronouncing his divine name. Jesus’ rebuke shows his power over them.

3:7–12

Increasing Popularity

3:7–8. Idumea was south of Galilee; east of the Jordan River was Perea, and Tyre and Sidon were to the northwest. Like Galilee, Idumea and Perea were religiously Jewish territories once dominated by Gentiles; Tyre and Sidon were Gentile cities, although it seems most likely here that Jewish residents of those cities are intended (see 7:27).

3:9–12. Finally Jesus has to find another way to deal with the growing crowds (3:9). Any prophet supposed to perform signs drew large crowds in Jewish Palestine, and Jesus seems to have drawn larger crowds than most others. Other “signs prophets” sometimes tried miracles like making the walls of Jerusalem fall down or the Jordan part (they failed), but no prophets since Elijah and Elisha had been reported as doing as many healing miracles as Jesus.

WHO?

  • Persons: Who is mentioned here?       
  • Action: Who is doing what?  What is happening?         

 WHY?

  • Purpose: What was the writer / speaker trying to achieve       
  •  Reasons: Are any reasons suggested?  

WHERE?

  • Arena: Is there any indication where something happens        
  • Zidon —  a fishery, a town on the Mediterranean coast, about 25 miles north of Tyre. It received its name from the “first-born” of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Gen. 10:15, 19). It was the first home of the Phoenicians on the coast of Palestine, and from its extensive commercial relations became a “great” city (Josh. 11:8; 19:28). It was the mother city of Tyre. It lay within the lot of the tribe of Asher, but was never subdued (Judg. 1:31). The Zidonians long oppressed Israel (Judg. 10:12). From the time of David its glory began to wane, and Tyre, its “virgin daughter” (Isa. 23:12), rose to its place of pre-eminence. Solomon entered into a matrimonial alliance with the Zidonians, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 33). This city was famous for its manufactures and arts, as well as for its commerce (1 Kings 5:6; 1 Chr. 22:4; Ezek. 27:8). It is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isa. 23:2, 4, 12; Jer. 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Ezek. 27:8; 28:21, 22; 32:30; Joel 3:4). Our Lord visited the “coasts” of Tyre and Zidon = Sidon (q.v.), Matt. 15:21; Mark 7:24; Luke 4:26; and from this region many came forth to hear him preaching (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). From Sidon, at which the ship put in after leaving Caesarea, Paul finally sailed for Rome (Acts 27:3, 4). This city is now a town of 10,000 inhabitants, with remains of walls built in the twelfth century A.D. In 1855, the sarcophagus of Eshmanezer was discovered. From a Phoenician inscription on its lid, it appears that he was a “king of the Sidonians,” probably in the third century B.C., and that his mother was a priestess of Ashtoreth, “the goddess of the Sidonians.” In this inscription Baal is mentioned as the chief god of the Sidonians.
  • Tyre —  a rock, now es-Sur; an ancient Phoenician city, about 23 miles, in a direct line, north of Acre, and 20 south of Sidon. Sidon was the oldest Phoenician city, but Tyre had a longer and more illustrious history. The commerce of the whole world was gathered into the warehouses of Tyre. “Tyrian merchants were the first who ventured to navigate the Mediterranean waters; and they founded their colonies on the coasts and neighbouring islands of the AEgean Sea, in Greece, on the northern coast of Africa, at Carthage and other places, in Sicily and Corsica, in Spain at Tartessus, and even beyond the pillars of Hercules at Gadeira (Cadiz)” (Driver’s Isaiah). In the time of David a friendly alliance was entered into between the Hebrews and the Tyrians, who were long ruled over by their native kings (2 Sam. 5:11; 1 Kings 5:1; 2 Chr. 2:3). Tyre consisted of two distinct parts, a rocky fortress on the mainland, called “Old Tyre,” and the city, built on a small, rocky island about half-a-mile distant from the shore. It was a place of great strength. It was besieged by Shalmaneser, who was assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years, and by Nebuchadnezzar ( 586-573) for thirteen years, apparently without success. It afterwards fell under the power of Alexander the Great, after a siege of seven months, but continued to maintain much of its commercial importance till the Christian era. It is referred to in Matt. 11:21 and Acts 12:20. In  1291 it was taken by the Saracens, and has remained a desolate ruin ever since. “The purple dye of Tyre had a worldwide celebrity on account of the durability of its beautiful tints, and its manufacture proved a source of abundant wealth to the inhabitants of that city.” Both Tyre and Sidon “were crowded with glass-shops, dyeing and weaving establishments; and among their cunning workmen not the least important class were those who were celebrated for the engraving of precious stones.” (2 Chr. 2:7,14). The wickedness and idolatry of this city are frequently denounced by the prophets, and its final destruction predicted (Isa. 23:1; Jer. 25:22; Ezek. 26; 28:1–19; Amos 1:9, 10; Zech. 9:2–4). Here a church was founded soon after the death of Stephen, and Paul, on his return from his third missionary journey spent a week in intercourse with the disciples there (Acts 21:4). Here the scene at Miletus was repeated on his leaving them. They all, with their wives and children, accompanied him to the sea-shore. The sea-voyage of the apostle terminated at Ptolemais, about 38 miles from Tyre. Thence he proceeded to Caesarea (Acts 21:5–8). “It is noticed on monuments as early as  1500, and claiming, according to Herodotus, to have been founded about  2700. It had two ports still existing, and was of commercial importance in all ages, with colonies at Carthage (about  850) and all over the Mediterranean. It was often attacked by Egypt and Assyria, and taken by Alexander the Great after a terrible siege in  332. It is now a town of 3,000 inhabitants, with ancient tombs and a ruined cathedral. A short Phoenician text of the fourth century  is the only monument yet recovered.”
  • Judea —  After the Captivity this name was applied to the whole of the country west of the Jordan (Hag. 1:1, 14; 2:2). But under the Romans, in the time of Christ, it denoted the southernmost of the three divisions of Palestine (Matt. 2:1, 5; 3:1; 4:25), although it was also sometimes used for Palestine generally (Acts 28:21). The province of Judea, as distinguished from Galilee and Samaria, included the territories of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, and part of Ephraim. Under the Romans it was a part of the province of Syria, and was governed by a procurator.
  • Idumea id’yoo-mee’uh (Ἰδουμαία G2628, from Heb. אֱדוֹם H121). Also Idumaea. One of the regions from which crowds came to follow Jesus (Mk. 3:8). A Greco-Roman province carved out of southern Palestine after the Alexandrian conquest, Idumea was larger than the ancient Edom. The new boundaries included the deserts of the Negev and the Shephelah as well as the sites of Lachish and Hebron. Because its inhabitants had aided Nebuchadnezzar in his conquest of the Jewish state, they are the subjects of some of the bitterest prophetic invective in the OT (Lam. 4:21; Ezek. 25:12; 35:3; Obad. 1–21; et al.). Edom was overthrown by the Nabatean Arabs about 300 B.C. who made the red rockhewn city of Petra their capital. Herod the Great was appointed governor of Idumea by Alexander Jannaeus after it was conquered by the Jews first under Judas Maccabee in 165 B.C. and finally by John Hyrcanus in 126 B.C. (see Hasmonean). Because of this subjection of his country, Herod considered himself a Jew. (See further A. Kasher, Jews, Idumaeans, and Ancient Arabs [1988].)

WHEN?

  • Events: …or when something happened?        

HOW?

  • Method: …or how something happens?          

Check for CONSISTENCY with the rest of scripture and theologians.

  • Refer to commentaries, Study Bibles, Bible Dictionaries, etc   
  • Withdrawal to the Lake (3:7–12)

7 Why did Jesus withdraw? Mark does not say, but Matthew’s use of the participle gnous (“knowing,” i.e., about the plot to kill him) in 12:15 makes it clear that Jesus left wherever he had been (Capernaum?) because he realized that the religious authorities were determined to get him. Since the time had not yet come for a serious confrontation, he withdrew to the Lake of Genessaret. This withdrawal, however, did not separate him from the crowds.

8 The crowds that came to Jesus were not only from the regions in the vicinity of Capernaum but also from the south (Jerusalem, Idumea), the east (across the Jordan), and the northwest (Tyre and Sidon). Mark includes the whole of Jewish Palestine. Schweizer (p. 79) points out that “to some extent, the locations named form an outline of the Gospel of Mark, since Jesus is active in Galilee ( chs. 16); Tyre, Sidon and Decapolis (ch. 7); and finally beyond the Jordan and in Jerusalem (chs. 10ff.).” The only territory mentioned here in which Jesus was not active is Idumea, the area south of Hebron.

Some of the geographical terms in this verse require comment. Idumea was invaded and conquered, after the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 B.C., by the Edomites who came from the east and settled there. Judas Maccabeus had several successful campaigns against the Idumeans, and during the reign of John Hyrcanus they were forced to adopt Judaism. Herod the Great was an Idumean, and several of his sons played important roles in the political history of Palestine. “Tyre and Sidon” are terms used virtually interchangeably for the northwestern area of Palestine. The “regions across the Jordan” probably included Perea and the Decapolis, both of which were under the political control of Herod Antipas, as was Galilee.

9–10 Only Mark includes the detail about the boat (v. 9). Its purpose was, of course, to provide escape for Jesus in case the crowd began to get unruly. The picture is that of great numbers of people pressing forward just to touch Jesus in the hope that by doing so they might be healed (v. 10). The crowd seems to have had little interest in Jesus other than as a miracle-worker. Despite this, he graciously healed many of them.

11–12 Here again Jesus comes into conflict with the demonic (v. 11). The evil spirits recognized who Jesus was—even if the crowds did not. Their crying out “You are the Son of God” is best understood as a “futile attempt to render him harmless. These cries of recognition were designed to control him and to strip him of his power, in accordance with the conception that knowledge of the precise name or quality of a person confers mastery over him” (Lane, p. 130). “Son of God” in this context is a true designation of who Jesus is, expressed by his bitter foes, the demons. Jesus silenced the outcries of the demons (v. 12) because the time for the clear revelation of who he was had not yet come, and the demons were hardly appropriate heralds of him. (Expositors Bible)

(ESV Study BIBLE)3:7–8 Despite serious opposition, Jesus is now known in Galilee, in Judea (including Jerusalem) and Idumea (to the south), in the area beyond the Jordan (to the east; see note on Matt. 4:25), and in Tyre and Sidon (to the north). All of these regions had belonged to Israel during the time of the judges, and descendants of the 12 tribes have now resettled in these regions following the Babylonian exile.

3:9–10 have a boat ready … because of the crowd. The popularity of Jesus grows especially on account of his healings and casting out demons. His chief goal, however, is to teach about, and to call people to, the kingdom of God (1:14–15).

3:11–12 Jesus does not permit unclean spirits to speak about him, for even when they make true statements, unwillingly acknowledging his greater authority, their intent is still evil, and they would divulge Jesus’ true identity, which would lead to much misunderstanding, before he wants to make himself known.

What is the MELODIC line of the passage?

What is the core message that sums up this teaching? Express it in contemporary wording….  

Melodic Line of the text? In one sentence. Compile some applications to daily personal life & society. How would you encourage listeners to respond to this message from God? How does it interact with the questions below?
How does it relate to us in regards to redemptive history?
What does this point mean for the non Christian?     
What does it mean for us as citizens, as employees, and so forth?     
What does it teach us about Christ?     
What does it mean for us as individual Christians?     
What does it mean for our church as a whole?     
Hidden Worldviews that Gospel application needs to counter. How does the text counter one or more of these false worldviews. Can I shed light on any of these hidden worldviews with this passage?
• Individualism — the story that “I” am the center of the universe
• Consumerism — the story that I am what I own
• Nationalism — the story that my nation is God’s nation
• Moral relativism — the story that we can’t know what is universally good
• Scientific naturalism — the story that all that matters is matter
• New Age — the story that we are gods
• Postmodern tribalism — the story that all that matters is what my small group thinks  
• Salvation by therapy — the story that I can come to my full human potential through inner exploration  
• Moralism— the belief that the Gospel can be reduced to improvements in behavior
• Traditionalism —  Adherence to tradition, especially in cultural or religious practice. Or a system holding that all knowledge is derived from original divine revelation and is transmitted by tradition.

1. Creation by Word In the beginning God created everything that exists. He made Adam and Eve and placed them in the garden of Eden. God spoke to them and gave them certain tasks in the world. For food he allowed them the fruit of all the trees in the garden except one. He warned them that they would die if they ate of that one tree.                                                                                                                             Genesis 1 and 2

2. The Fall The snake persuaded Eve to disobey God and to eat the forbidden fruit. She gave some to Adam and he ate also. Then God spoke to them in judgment, and sent them out of the garden into a world that came under the same judgment.                                                                                                    Genesis 3

3. First Revelation of Redemption Outside Eden, Cain and Abel were born to Adam and eve. Cain murdered Abel and Eve bore another son, Seth. Eventually the human race became so wicked that God determined to destroy every living thing with a flood. Noah and his family were saved by building a great boat at God’s command. The human race began again with Noah and his three sons with their families. Sometime after the flood a still unified human race attempted a godless act to assert its power in the building of a high tower. God thwarted these plans by scattering the people and confusing their language.                                            Genesis 4–11

4. Abraham Our Father Sometime in the early second millennium BC God called Abraham out of Mesopotamia to Canaan. He promised to give this land to Abraham’s descendants and to bless them as his people. Abraham went, and many years later he had a son, Isaac. Isaac in rum had two sons, Esau and Jacob. The promises of God were established with Jacob and his descendants. He had twelve sons, and in time they all went to live in Egypt because of famine in Canaan.                                                                                           Genesis 12–50

5. Exodus: Our Pattern of Redemption In time the descendants of Jacob living in Egypt multiplied to become a very large number of people. The Egyptians no longer regarded them with friendliness and made them slaves. God appointed Moses to be the one who would lead Israel out of Egypt to the promised land of Canaan. When the moment came for Moses to demand the freedom of his people, the Pharaoh refused to let them go. Though Moses worked ten miracle–plagues which brought hardship, destruction, and death to the Egyptians. Finally, Pharaoh let Israel go, but then pursued them and trapped them at the Red Sea (or Sea of Reeds). The God opened a way in the sea for Israel to cross on dry land, but closed the water over the Egyptian army, destroying it.       Exodus 1–15

6. New Life: Gift and Task After their release from Egypt, Moses led the Israelites to Mount Sinai. There God gave them his law which they were commanded to keep. At one point Moses held a covenant renewal ceremony in which the covenant arrangement was sealed in blood. However, while Moses was away on the mountain, the people persuaded Aaron to fashion a golden calf. Thus they showed their inclination to forsake the covenant and to engage in idolatry. God also commanded the building of the tabernacle and gave all the rules of sacrificial worship by which Israel might approach him.                                                                                  Exodus 16–40; Leviticus

7. The Temptation in the Wilderness After giving the law to the Israelites at Sinai, God directed them to go in and take possession of the promised land. Fearing the inhabitants of Canaan, they refused to do so, thus showing lack of confidence in the promises of God. The whole adult generation that had come out of Egypt, with the exception of Joshua and Caleb, was condemned to wander and die in the desert. Israel was forbidden to dispossess its kinsfolk, the nation of Edom, Moab, and Ammon, but was given victory over other nations that opposed it. Finally, forty years after leaving Egypt, Israel arrived in the Moabite territory on the east side of the Jordan. Here Moses prepared the people for their possession of Canaan, and commissioned Joshua as their new leader.   Numbers; Deuteronomy

8. Into the Good Land Under Joshua’s leadership the Israelites crossed the Jordan and began the task of driving out the inhabitants of Canaan. After the conquest the land was divided between the tribes, each being allotted its own region. Only the tribe of Levi was without an inheritance of land because of its special priestly relationship to God. There remained pockets of Canaanites in the land and, from time to time, these threatened Israel’s hold on their new possession. From the one–man leaderships of Moses and Joshua, the nation moved into a period of relative instability during which judges exercised some measure of control over the affairs of the people.  Joshua; Judges; Ruth

9. God’s Rule in God’s Land Samuel became judge and prophet in all Israel at a time when the Philistines threatened the freedom of the nation. An earlier movement for kingship was received and the demand put to a reluctant Samuel. The first king, Saul, had a promising start to his reign but eventually showed himself unsuitable as the ruler of the covenant people. While Saul still reigned, David was anointed to succeed him. Because of Saul’s jealousy David became an outcast, but when Saul died in battle David returned and became king (about 1000 BC). Due to his success Israel became a powerful and stable nation. He established a central sanctuary at Jerusalem, and created a professional bureaucracy and permanent army. David’s son Solomon succeeded him (about 961 BC) and the prosperity of Israel continued. The building of the temple at Jerusalem was one of Solomon’s most notable achievements.                                                                                                      1 and 2 Samuel; 1 Kings 1–10; 1 Chronicles; 2 Chronicles 1–9

10. The Fading Shadow Solomon allowed political considerations and personal ambitions to sour his relationship with God, and this in turn had a bad effect on the life of Israel. Solomon’s son began an oppressive rule which led to the rebellion of the northern tribes and the division of the kingdom. Although there were some political and religious high points, both kingdoms went into decline, A new breed of prophets warned against the direction of national life, but matters went from bad to worse. In 722 BC the northern kingdom of Israel fell to the power of the Assyrian empire. Then, in 586 BC the southern kingdom of Judah was devastated by the Babylonians. Jerusalem and its temple were destroyed, and a large part of the population was deported to Babylon.          1 Kings 11–22; 2 Kings

11. There Is a New Creation The prophets of Israel warned of the doom that would befall the nation. When the first exiles were taken to Babylon in 597 BC, Ezekiel was among them. Both prophets ministered to the exiles. Life for the Jews (the people of Judah) in Babylon was not all bad, and in time many prospered. The books of Jeremiah and Ezekiel indicate a certain normality to the experience, while Daniel and Esther highlight some of the difficulties and suffering experienced in an alien and oppressive culture.                            Jeremiah; Ezekiel; Daniel; Esther

12. The Second Exodus In 539 BC Babylon fell to the Medo–Persian empire. The following year, Cyrus the king allowed the Jews to return home and to set up a Jewish state within the Persian empire. Great difficulty was experienced in re–establishing the nation. There was local opposition to the rebuilding of Jerusalem and the temple. Many of the Jews did not return but stayed on in the land of their exile. In the latter part of the fourth century BC, Alexander the Great conquered the Persian empire. The Jews entered a long and difficult period in which Greek culture and religion challenged their trust in God’s covenant promises. In 63 BC Pompey conquered Palestine and the Jews found themselves a province of the Roman empire.                             Ezra; Nehemiah; Haggai

13. The New Creation for Us The province of Judea, the homeland of the Jews, came under Roman rule in 63 BC. During the reign of Caesar Augustus, Jesus was born at Bethlehem, probably about the year 4 BC. John, known as the Baptist, prepared the way for the ministry of Jesus. This ministry of preaching, teaching, and healing began with Jesus’ baptism and lasted about three years. Growing conflict with the Jews and their religious leaders led eventually to Jesus being sentenced to death by the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate. He was executed by the Romans just outside Jerusalem, but rose from death two days afterward and appealed to his followers on a number of occasions. After a period with them, Jesus was taken up to heaven.                                   Matthew; Mark; Luke; John

14. The New Creation in Us Initiated After Jesus had ascended, his disciples waited in Jerusalem. On the day of Pentecost the Holy Spirit came upon them and they began the task of proclaiming Jesus. As the missionary implications of the gospel became clearer to the first Christians, the local proclamation was extended to world evangelization. The apostle Paul took the gospel to Asia Minor and Greece, establishing many churches as he went. Eventually a church flourished at the heart of the empire of Rome.                   Acts

15. The New Creation in Us Now As the gospel made inroads into pagan societies it encountered many philosophies and non–Christian ideas which challenged the apostolic message. The New Testament epistles shows that the kind of pressures to adopt pagan ideas that had existed for the people of God in Old Testament times were also a constant threat to the churches. The real danger to Christian teaching was not so much in direct attacks upon it, but rather in the subtle distortion of Christian ideas. Among the troublemakers were the Judaizers who added Jewish law–keeping to the gospel. The Gnostics also undermined the gospel with elements of Greek philosophy and religion.                                                                                                                New Testament Epistles

16. The New Creation Consummated God is Lord over history and therefore, when he so desires, he can cause the events of the future to be recorded. All section of the New Testament contain references to things which have not yet happened, the most significant being the return of Christ and the consummation of the kingdom of God. No clues to the actual chronology are given, but it is certain that Christ will return to judge the living and the dead. The old creation will be undone and the new creation will take its place.                 The New Testament

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